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List of Human Cell Types | Biology Lists | www.biology-nation.com



 

There are about 210 known distinct human cell types.

Integumentary system

Keratinizing epithelial cells

  • Epidermal keratinocyte (differentiating epidermal cell)
  • Epidermal basal cell (stem cell)
  • Keratinocyte of fingernails and toenails
  • Nail bed basal cell (stem cell)
  • Medullary hair shaft cell
  • Cortical hair shaft cell
  • Cuticular hair shaft cell
  • Cuticular hair root sheath cell
  • Hair root sheath cell of Huxley's layer
  • Hair root sheath cell of Henle's layer
  • External hair root sheath cell
  • Hair matrix cell (stem cell)

Wet stratified barrier epithelial cells

  • Surface epithelial cell of stratified squamous epithelium of cornea, tongue, oral cavity, esophagus, anal canal, distal urethra and vagina
  • basal cell (stem cell) of epithelia of cornea, tongue, oral cavity, esophagus, anal canal, distal urethra and vagina
  • Urinary epithelium cell (lining urinary bladder and urinary ducts)

Exocrine secretory epithelial cells

  • Salivary gland mucous cell (polysaccharide-rich secretion)
  • Salivary gland serous cell (glycoprotein enzyme-rich secretion)
  • Von Ebner's gland cell in tongue (washes taste buds)
  • Mammary gland cell (milk secretion)
  • Lacrimal gland cell (tear secretion)
  • Ceruminous gland cell in ear (wax secretion)
  • Eccrine sweat gland dark cell (glycoprotein secretion)
  • Eccrine sweat gland clear cell (small molecule secretion)
  • Apocrine sweat gland cell (odoriferous secretion, sex-hormone sensitive)
  • Gland of Moll cell in eyelid (specialized sweat gland)
  • Sebaceous gland cell (lipid-rich sebum secretion)
  • Bowman's gland cell in nose (washes olfactory epithelium)
  • Brunner's gland cell in duodenum (enzymes and alkaline mucus)
  • Seminal vesicle cell (secretes seminal fluid components, including fructose for swimming sperm)
  • Prostate gland cell (secretes seminal fluid components)
  • Bulbourethral gland cell (mucus secretion)
  • Bartholin's gland cell (vaginal lubricant secretion)
  • Gland of Littre cell (mucus secretion)
  • Uterus endometrium cell (carbohydrate secretion)
  • Isolated goblet cell of respiratory and digestive tracts (mucus secretion)
  • Stomach lining mucous cell (mucus secretion)
  • Gastric gland zymogenic cell (pepsinogen secretion)
  • Gastric gland oxyntic cell (hydrochloric acid secretion)
  • Pancreatic acinar cell (bicarbonate and digestive enzyme secretion)
  • Paneth cell of small intestine (lysozyme secretion)
  • Type II pneumocyte of lung (surfactant secretion)
  • Clara cell of lung

Hormone secreting cells

  • Anterior pituitary cells
    • Somatotropes
    • Lactotropes
    • Thyrotropes
    • Gonadotropes
    • Corticotropes
  • Intermediate pituitary cell, secreting melanocyte-stimulating hormone
  • Magnocellular neurosecretory cells
    • secreting oxytocin
    • secreting vasopressin
  • Gut and respiratory tract cells
    • secreting serotonin
    • secreting endorphin
    • secreting somatostatin
    • secreting gastrin
    • secreting secretin
    • secreting cholecystokinin
    • secreting insulin
    • secreting glucagon
    • secreting bombesin
  • Thyroid gland cells
    • thyroid epithelial cell
    • parafollicular cell
  • Parathyroid gland cells
    • Parathyroid chief cell
    • Oxyphil cell
  • Adrenal gland cells
    • chromaffin cells
    • secreting steroid hormones (mineralcorticoids and gluco corticoids)
  • Leydig cell of testes secreting testosterone
  • Theca interna cell of ovarian follicle secreting estrogen
  • Corpus luteum cell of ruptured ovarian follicle secreting progesterone
    • Granulosa lutein cells
    • Theca lutein cells
  • Juxtaglomerular cell (renin secretion)
  • Macula densa cell of kidney
  • Peripolar cell of kidney
  • Mesangial cell of kidney

Metabolism and storage cells

  • Hepatocyte (liver cell)
  • White fat cell
  • Brown fat cell
  • Liver lipocyte

Barrier function cells (Lung, Gut, Exocrine Glands and Urogenital Tract)

Kidney

  • Kidney glomerulus parietal cell
  • Kidney glomerulus podocyte
  • Kidney proximal tubule brush border cell
  • Loop of Henle thin segment cell
  • Kidney distal tubule cell
  • Kidney collecting duct cell

Other

  • Type I pneumocyte (lining air space of lung)
  • Pancreatic duct cell (centroacinar cell)
  • Nonstriated duct cell (of sweat gland, salivary gland, mammary gland, etc.)
    • principal cell
    • Intercalated cell
  • Duct cell (of seminal vesicle, prostate gland, etc.)
  • Intestinal brush border cell (with microvilli)
  • Exocrine gland striated duct cell
  • Gall bladder epithelial cell
  • Ductulus efferens nonciliated cell
  • Epididymal principal cell
  • Epididymal basal cell

Epithelial cells lining closed internal body cavities

  • Blood vessel and lymphatic vascular endothelial fenestrated cell
  • Blood vessel and lymphatic vascular endothelial continuous cell
  • Blood vessel and lymphatic vascular endothelial splenic cell
  • Synovial cell (lining joint cavities, hyaluronic acid secretion)
  • Serosal cell (lining peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial cavities)
  • Squamous cell (lining perilymphatic space of ear)
  • Squamous cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear)
  • Columnar cell of endolymphatic sac with microvilli (lining endolymphatic space of ear)
  • Columnar cell of endolymphatic sac without microvilli (lining endolymphatic space of ear)
  • Dark cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear)
  • Vestibular membrane cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear)
  • Stria vascularis basal cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear)
  • Stria vascularis marginal cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear)
  • Cell of Claudius (lining endolymphatic space of ear)
  • Cell of Boettcher (lining endolymphatic space of ear)
  • Choroid plexus cell (cerebrospinal fluid secretion)
  • Pia-arachnoid squamous cell
  • Pigmented ciliary epithelium cell of eye
  • Nonpigmented ciliary epithelium cell of eye
  • Corneal endothelial cell

Ciliated cells with propulsive function

  • Respiratory tract ciliated cell
  • Oviduct ciliated cell (in female)
  • Uterine endometrial ciliated cell (in female)
  • Rete testis ciliated cell (in male)
  • Ductulus efferens ciliated cell (in male)
  • Ciliated ependymal cell of central nervous system (lining brain cavities)

Extracellular matrix secretion cells

  • Ameloblast epithelial cell (tooth enamel secretion)
  • Planum semilunatum epithelial cell of vestibular apparatus of ear (proteoglycan secretion)
  • Organ of Corti interdental epithelial cell (secreting tectorial membrane covering hair cells)
  • Loose connective tissue fibroblasts
  • Corneal fibroblasts
  • Tendon fibroblasts
  • Bone marrow reticular tissue fibroblasts
  • Other nonepithelial fibroblasts
  • Pericyte
  • Nucleus pulposus cell of intervertebral disc
  • Cementoblast/cementocyte (tooth root bonelike cementum secretion)
  • Odontoblast/odontocyte (tooth dentin secretion)
  • Hyaline cartilage chondrocyte
  • Fibrocartilage chondrocyte
  • Elastic cartilage chondrocyte
  • Osteoblast/osteocyte
  • Osteoprogenitor cell (stem cell of osteoblasts)
  • Hyalocyte of vitreous body of eye
  • Stellate cell of perilymphatic space of ear

Contractile cells

  • Skeletal muscle cells
    • Red skeletal muscle cell (slow)
    • White skeletal muscle cell (fast)
    • Intermediate skeletal muscle cell
    • nuclear bag cell of muscle spindle
    • nuclear chain cell of muscle spindle
  • Satellite cell (stem cell)
  • Heart muscle cells
    • Ordinary heart muscle cell
    • Nodal heart muscle cell
    • Purkinje fiber cell
  • Smooth muscle cell (various types)
  • Myoepithelial cell of iris
  • Myoepithelial cell of exocrine glands

Blood and immune system cells

  • Erythrocyte (red blood cell)
  • Megakaryocyte (platelet precursor)
  • Monocyte
  • Connective tissue macrophage (various types)
  • Epidermal Langerhans cell
  • Osteoclast (in bone)
  • Dendritic cell (in lymphoid tissues)
  • Microglial cell (in central nervous system)
  • Neutrophil granulocyte
  • Eosinophil granulocyte
  • Basophil granulocyte
  • Mast cell
  • Helper T cell
  • Suppressor T cell
  • Cytotoxic T cell
  • Natural Killer T cell
  • B cell
  • Natural killer cell
  • Reticulocyte
  • Stem cells and committed progenitors for the blood and immune system (various types)

Nervous system

Sensory transducer cells

  • Auditory inner hair cell of organ of Corti
  • Auditory outer hair cell of organ of Corti
  • Basal cell of olfactory epithelium (stem cell for olfactory neurons)
  • Cold-sensitive primary sensory neurons
  • Heat-sensitive primary sensory neurons
  • Merkel cell of epidermis (touch sensor)
  • Olfactory receptor neuron
  • Pain-sensitive primary sensory neurons (various types)
  • Photoreceptor cells of retina in eye:
    • Photoreceptor rod cells
    • Photoreceptor blue-sensitive cone cell of eye
    • Photoreceptor green-sensitive cone cell of eye
    • Photoreceptor red-sensitive cone cell of eye
  • Proprioceptive primary sensory neurons (various types)
  • Touch-sensitive primary sensory neurons (various types)
  • Type I carotid body cell (blood pH sensor)
  • Type II carotid body cell (blood pH sensor)
  • Type I hair cell of vestibular apparatus of ear (acceleration and gravity)
  • Type II hair cell of vestibular apparatus of ear (acceleration and gravity)
  • Type I taste bud cell

Autonomic neuron cells

  • Cholinergic neural cell (various types)
  • Adrenergic neural cell (various types)
  • Peptidergic neural cell (various types)

Sense organ and peripheral neuron supporting cells

  • Inner pillar cell of organ of Corti
  • Outer pillar cell of organ of Corti
  • Inner phalangeal cell of organ of Corti
  • Outer phalangeal cell of organ of Corti
  • Border cell of organ of Corti
  • Hensen cell of organ of Corti
  • Vestibular apparatus supporting cell
  • Type I taste bud supporting cell
  • Olfactory epithelium supporting cell
  • Schwann cell
  • Satellite cell (encapsulating peripheral nerve cell bodies)
  • Enteric glial cell

Central nervous system neurons and glial cells

  • Astrocyte (various types)
  • Neuron cells (large variety of types, still poorly classified)
  • Oligodendrocyte
  • Spindle neuron

Lens cells

  • Anterior lens epithelial cell
  • Crystallin-containing lens fiber cell

Pigment cells

  • Melanocyte
  • Retinal pigmented epithelial cell

Germ cells

  • Oogonium/Oocyte
  • Spermatid
  • Spermatocyte
  • Spermatogonium cell (stem cell for spermatocyte)
  • Spermatozoon

Nurse cells

  • Ovarian follicle cell
  • Sertoli cell (in testis)
  • Thymus epithelial cell

Interstitial cells

  • Interstitial kidney cells[1]

References

  1. ^ mednote.co
  • Robert A. Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, 1999

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